Number systems. BCD, ASCII codes. Logic gates and Boolean algebra, Combinational circuit design. NAND and NOR latches. Flip-flop. Frequency division and counting. Arithmetic circuits. Adder, 2’s complement addition and subtraction. The BCD adder, Counter: Asynchronous and Synchronous counters, MOD numbers, Decoding a counter. Cascading counters. Register: Shift registers, Frequency counter, digital clock .Encoders. Multiplexers, De-multiplexers. Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC), Digital-to-analog conversion (DAC), Integrated Circuit (IC) logic families: TTL logic family, Memory Devices: ROM architecture. EPROM, EEPROM, ROM applications. RAM architecture, static and dynamic RAM, DRAM structure operation and refreshing. The course includes lab works based on theory taught.