Significance and methods of measurements, Electrical and Electronic. Absolute and secondary instruments. Analog and digital instruments, Electronic instruments. RMS and quasi responding voltmeters, Automation in voltmeters, Accuracy and errors in digital instruments. Transducers, Signal generators, Frequency synthesizers and frequency analyzers, Analog and digital frequency meters. Oscilloscopes, Absorption and detection of radiation, Single channel and multi-channel analyzers. Medical instruments: ECG, EEG, EMG, X-ray, Ultrasonography, Endoscopies, Pace-makers, CT-Scan, MRI. Analytical instruments: pH meter, Thermal conductivity meters, Gas chromatograph, Spectrophotometers, Mass spectrometers, SEM, TEM. Interfacing systems: Measurement and control of temperature, pressure, flow, strain, acceleration, vibration, liquid level and humidity. Instrument systems, types and techniques, versatility, data acquisition, stimulus response control, automatic testing, analog and digital interfaces, digital and computer-controlled systems analog and digital recording systems, readouts and displays, Grounding of instruments. Electrical Measurements: Ammeter, Voltmeter, Ohmmeter, wattmeter Energy meter, Gauss and frequency meter, Extension of instrument ranges, electronics measuring instrument and oscilloscope.